Tuesday, May 30, 2006

Energy Balance and Weight Gain - Weight Loss

We have been told that weight loss occur because of a state negative energy balance ad that weight gain occur because of the state of positive energy balance.
Such explanation is accepted as unquestionable scientific truth by entire scientific community.
Here are just two examples that reflect present scientific explanation of occurrence of weight gain and weight loss.

“Weight loss occurs when an individual is in a state of negative energy balance. When the human body is losing more chemical energy in work and heat than it is gaining from food or other nutritional supplements, it will catabolise stored reserves (or fat) inside the body.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weight_loss

“Weight gain occurs when the amount of energy (calories) consumed as food and drink exceeds the energy which is used for exercise and other metabolic processes of the body. This is known as positive energy balance. The excess energy is stored principally as fat. Each kilogram of fat stores approximately 9000kcal. This fat can only be lost when the body requires more energy than is available from food and thus draws upon its energy stores. This is known as negative energy balance.”
http://www.aso.org.uk/mlw/nfdefault.asp?menuid=162&header=yes

It sound scientific, but let’s take a little bit under scrutiny this unquestionable scientific truth.
How is possible to describe situation when body is in a state of negative energy balance (at which point the body is in a state of negative energy balance)?
Is it the body in a state of negative energy balance then, when are no calories left in digestive system and at this point body start to “draws upon its energy stores” (bite fat tissues.....self cannibalism ..?)
Or is it the body in a state of negative energy balance when is 1kcal calorie left in digestive system and at this point metabolism start to “draws upon its energy stores” (bite own fat tissues - self cannibalism?)
Or is it the body in a state of negative energy balance and decide to “draws upon its energy stores” (bite fat tissues) when 5 kcal is left in digestive system, or when 10kcal or 50kcal or 500kcal is or when is 2000 kcal.
Same questions are applying for “the state of positive energy balance”; at which point the body is in positive state of energy balance? Is it when is 1kcal in digestive system that body decide to convert this energy in fat mass for late use or is it when is 5kcal or 10kcal or when is 50kcal or 500kcal or 2000kcal in digestive system.
To get idea how this scientific explanation is pointless you can discover on this way: In time when you are reading this post ask your self are you at this moment in state of positive energy balance or are you in state of negative energy balance or you are in the state of grace with counting calories (calories in equal calories out).
It will be funny if such a science isn’t responsible for so many peoples misery.
Any known intervention in attempt to control weight of the body, (diet for weight loss, exercise for weight loss, pharmaceutical inventions, all WLS) is based on understanding that weight gain happen because of a state of positive energy balance and that weight loss happen because of a state of negative energy balance.
The common understanding is that body will lose weight when expends more energy than it takes in, and it sounds reasonable that energy to make up the shortfall must come from somewhere. But the question is; when the body expands more energy than what take in. At witch point we can say that body expand more energy than what take in, is it when is one calorie left in digestive system or…. It need to bear in mind that long before body expand more energy than it takes in, the strength of the body will decreased to the point that will cause consciousness and in short time death will follow parallel with loss of the remaining strength. Still lifeless body corpse contain plenty of calories, (glucose, ketones, adenosine triphosphate etc) One important fact need to take in consideration is that restriction of food intake negatively affect the strength of the body by everyone it doesn’t mater is obese, overweight, normal weight or underweight. Any mechanical engine stops to work when run out of energy or by absence of sufficient energy supply. Human’s body stop to work when run out of the strength. Explanation that obesity occurs if the body takes in less energy than it expends over a given period of time in first moment sounds reasonable and it leads to conclusion that energy balance over period of time in biology is real. Only one fact need to take in consideration that in the real world it is not possible to have situation where existing balance over a period of time, but doesn’t existing at a particular point of those period of time. In real world, from nothing, can’t be something it doesn’t mater how long the period of time is.
Concerning weight loss/weight gain in human body at any particular point in any given period of time the energy balance doesn’t exist
Building of the fat mass is not simply mater of balance but it is life process (biological process).
Energy balance over period of time has meaning in physics, economics, climatology, hydrology etc and that is fact that misleading to conclusion that in biology energy balance over period of time exist.
For example the financial balance over given period of time is real. We do not need to know for each day what is financial situation. It is enough on the end of the year to count how much many is made and how much is spend. Do we know or do we don’t know what financial situation is for each day is not important. What important is that this financial situation for each day of the year exist (it is real) and if we like to know what is financial situation for particularly day we are able to know. In each day of the year it is possible to know what current financial balance is and that enable to know what balance between annual income and annual expenditure is. Inability to know what financial situation is in one particularly a day will make pointless any attempt to know what balance is for one year. In case of energy balance (concerning weight gain/loss) we are unable to locate point of time when the body is in state of positive or negative energy balance because the state of positive and state of negative energy balance doesn’t exist.
Weather and climate is real thing because we can see and know what is current climate and weather situation and because of that we can observe change that is happening in climate and weather situation over period of time. We can observe change that is happening on real thing. Weight of the body is real thing and we can observe change in the weight over any period of time and as well we are able to know exactly weight of the body at any present point of the given period of time.
Observing change on things that we are not sure in their existence at present point of time (what is the case with the state of positive and negative energy balance) is pointless. The examples of naturally thin people and people affected by certain types of injury, alderfly, and people affected by weightlessness and many another examples shows that scientific explanation based on energy balance to explain weight gain weight loss is not sufficient.
On the other side, many examples lead as to make conclusion that still energy balance explain weight gain/weight loss. One good example is bears. The bears eating plenty in autumn and gain the weight and over winter they not eating and they lose the weight gained in autumn. First impression is that eating alone is responsible for weight gain and that absence of food is responsible for weight loss. But if we are take closer examinations we can see that even bear doesn’t gain weight in spring time and early summer but start to picking on the weight in middle of summer and mostly in autumn. If we take under closer examination the weight loss induced by weight loss surgeries we can discovery some disturbing facts about real cause of weight loss. For everyone it is unquestionable truth that weight loss surgeries force restriction a food intake and that cause weight loss.
Before we accept this conclusion it is useful to remind us that people effected whit certain types of injuries involuntary are losing weight.
Bearing in mind that certain types of injuries cause weight loss it is reasonable question do restriction of food intake forced by WLS causing weight loss or is something else.One of the facts is that WLS force restriction of food intake.
Another fact is that WLS is inflicting certain type of injury-the injury of the stomach.
In reality the patient that undergo weight loss surgery doesn’t lose weight because of restriction of food intake but because of factor that is identical to factor that is responsible for weight loss by people affected by certain types of injuries.

Theory that body storage unused energy as fat mass in fat tissues for late use is based on assumption of existence of the state of positive energy balance on one side and on the other side is assumption that metabolic waste is calories free.
It is available plenty evidence that clearly shows that building fat mass (weight gain) on the body can’t be explained as simply mater of a state of positive energy balance and as well is available plenty evidence that show that building off of the fat mass (weight loss) can’t be explained as simply mater of a state of negative energy balance. Restriction of food intake usually (not always) leads to weight loss. Involvement in moderate or rigorous exercise usually (not always) lead to weight loss. In both case weight loss is explained as direct consequence of a state of negative energy balance. I am trying to explain that in both cases, weight loss doesn’t happen because of a state of negative energy balance (the state of negative energy balance doesn’t exist) but from some another factor that is usually (but not always) caused by restriction of food intake or by rigorous physical activity.

For example, by people affected by weightlessness (cosmonauts and astronauts) intake of food alone will not produce any weight gain. It means that in weightlessness food is essential for sustaining of life but will not produce any weight gain as well it will not prevent weight loss.
To prevent weight loss and as well to counteract other negative consequences for health caused by weightlessness cosmonauts and astronauts spending great amount of time doing exercise on specially designed exercise machines and device. It is because of absence of mechanical stimulation produced by working against gravity. By absence of mechanical stimulation (produced by working against the pull of gravity) body constantly losing weight independent of quantity and quality of food intakes. Here on earth we have many examples when the regular or increased intake of food does not cause any weight gain and in many cases normal or increased food intake alone is not sufficient to prevent weight loss. Intake of the food does not produce weight gain by elderly, people affected with long standing illnesses, people affected with certain type of injury and people affected by prolong bed rest. It mean that food together with water and air is essential for sustaining of life but to maintain existing weight and to gain new weight it is essential presence of mechanical stimulation produced mainly by (physical activity) working against gravity. It is a wide accepted thought that intake of food together with physical activity is responsible for building muscle mass and that food intake with physical inactivity is responsible for building fat mass but on the other side the examples of people affected by weightlessness an people affected by prolong bed rest, people affected with long standing illnesses and elderly is clear that by absence or insufficient physical activity regular or increased food intake will not produce any weight gain. In all this examples it is clear that intake of food alone is not enough not only to gain new weight but is not enough to maintain existing weight of the body.
It is because of absence of required level of strength and duration of mechanical stimulation produced by working against gravity. It shows that for building fat mass is responsible mechanical factor (excessive mechanical stimulation).
How physical activity is responsible for weight gain whether is muscle or fat tissues or both of them I will try to explain what is different when body build muscle tissues from when body build fat tissues. For doing any physical activity we are using strength of the muscle and strength (solidity) of the bones. Muscles (and bones) gain the strength because we are using strength of the muscle (and bones). Muscle tissues (and bone tissues) gain mass because we are providing mechanical stimulation to muscle tissues (and bones tissues). It is wide accepted thought that increase in muscle mass mean as well increase of strength and is wrong. We can increase strength of the muscle without increasing muscle mass. And as well, we can increase muscle mass without increasing strength of the muscle.
By doing any physical activity we are not using fat tissues but in many cases we are providing mechanical stimulation to the fat tissues and that is factor that cause maintaining and building of the new fat mass. We are providing mechanical stimulation to fat tissues by unbalanced gait patterns and incorrect body posture. Just slightly improvement in body posture and adopting more efficient locomotion (balanced gait) will produce visible change in a few days by everyone and in same time will positively affect healthy wellbeing. Weight loss concerning fat mass of the body is not due to burning calories but due to atrophy of fat tissues. Atrophy of fat tissues happenings by absence of required level of strength and duration of mechanical stimulation necessary for maintenance of the existing fat mass. By simply observation we can notice difference in the gait patterns and body posture between obese and thin people. Type of the gait patterns explains fat formation on the body. Type of the body posture explains fat distribution on the body. Observing the gait patterns of the bears we can notice that all bears have different gait patterns in spring and different gait in autumn. Excessive feeding bear in springs will not produce weight gain. Changes in gait patterns in summer enable picking on the weight. Gained weight further more contribute to change of the gait patterns.

It is known that with heavy exercise is possible to achieve weight loss. But it is known as well that body doesn’t lose weight in time of doing exercise. Weight loss occurs after exercise is done. Body maintain elevating breathing rate for a few minutes after exercise and after that period regain pre- exercise breathing level. Post exercise oxygen consumption doesn’t explain occurrence of post exercise weight loss. Post exercise weight loss is due to increased efficiency of locomotion and increased efficiency of supporting weight of the body against gravity caused by increased postural strength, postural stability and improvement in motor skill. Increased postural strength, postural stability and motor skill are consequences of strenuous physical activity.

Post WLS weight loss occurs because of restriction of mechanical stimulation produced by working against the pull of gravity. People affected with certain types of injuries and people affected with weight loss surgeries are losing weight from same reason. Change of the gait patterns and change of the body posture is responsible for occurrences of weight loss.

It shows that restriction of calories intake with intention to prevent building of the fat mass is wrong and as well the restriction of calories intake with intention to achieve building off of the fat mass is wrong. Not only restriction of food intake is wrong but as well involving in physical activity with intention to burn calories is wrong.

In attempt to understand the real cause of obesity the energy balance is meaningless word and doesn’t explain nothing concerning weight gain/weight loss but misleading and obstructing to understand how certain type of physical activity causing weight loss and how some another type of physical activity causing weight gain and how certain type of physical activity by some people causing weight gain and by some another people causing weight loss and by some people doesn’t contributing at all to change in weight of the body.

Drug and diet approach till today, didn’t brought any progress to prevent weight loss in weightlessness whether is muscle mass or bone mass or fat mass. Wasting a way of the body (bones mass, muscle mass, fat mass….) in weightlessness is mayor obstacle to any possible prolonged space flight.

Here on the earth drug and diet approach didn’t bring any progress to reverse or to slow rising trend of obesity.

In weightlessness only way to slow wastage of the bones, muscle and fat mass is to provide body with mechanical stimulation by working on specially designed exercising machines and device.
Here on the earth is to confront with reality that certain types of physical activities are responsible for weight loss and how certain types of physical activities are responsible for weight gain.


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